Chapters :

 

AGRICULTURE - 01

INTRODUCTION

Indian agriculture sector is considered the backbone of our country. The monsoonal climate and diverse topographic condition of our country has a huge scope for agriculture and since ages it has been a predominant occupation of the subcontinent. It employs the largest number of labour force in country. Hence agriculture is the most important sector economy. It is part of primary sector of economy which gives highest contribution in terms of labour and food self-sufficiency. Indian agriculture sector plays a major role in the world economy also by way of exports of various commodities like fruits and vegetables.

In 1955, this sector contributed 55.4 % of the GDP. Its contribution in terms of monetary value has decreased to 16.5% in 2019. This is coincident with the growth of other secondary and tertiary sectors like manufacturing and service which has higher value addition in developing economies. But still Agriculture Sector Employees 48.7% Of The Labour Force. This is significant as the it gives rise to the aspect of livelihood of farmers. Hence the agriculture sector plays a very important role in India in terms of economy, social aspects, geographic conditions etc. Agriculture reforms remain vital and primary for socio-economic development.

FEATURES OF INDIAN AGRICULTURE

  1. Monsoon Dependent – the sowing and harvesting seasons vary depending upon the rainfall. The unpredictability of rainfall and its dependence is a nature of Indian agriculture
  2. Subsistence Agriculture – it means that the landholding size is smaller and provides for household rather than high productivity. This is because of the social organization of the agricultural society and large number of people employed in agriculture.
  3. Low productivity
  4. Labour Intensive – traditional agricultural practices are followed in most parts of the country. Technological capital intensive production is minimal.
  5. Disguised Unemployment – occurs when productivity is low and too many workers are filling too few jobs. It can refer to any part of the population that is not employed at full capacity. It is majorly observed in agriculture.
  6. Household as the labour unit – members of a family are employed in farming.
  7. Unorganised sector – it is the biggest unorganised sector of the economy accounting for more than 90% share in total unorganised labour force (93.4% of the total labour force i.e. 40 crores people).
  8. Feudal relationships and dependence on moneylenders
  9. Global trade – India occupies leading position in global agriculture trade having a share of 2.15% in world agriculture. The net exports value in 2018-19 is 2.7lakh crore against import of 1.37 lakh crore.
  10. Feminization Of Agriculture – it is a recent phenomenon where the more women are ending up as agriculture labour with no landholdings. The reason behind this is migration of rural poor men to urban areas for causal work and the farms in rural areas are occupied by women labour.

EVOLUTION OF INDIAN AGRICULTURE SECTOR

PHASE 1 after independence there was severe scarcity of food and poverty. Hence food self-sufficiency was the primary goal of agriculture sector. Hence with introduction of green revolution by 1980s food self-suffiency was achieved.

PHASE 2there was a huge gap created between the surplus and demand. Government warehouses and policies catered to the food storage and surplus grain production was achieved but there was a large population which didn’t have access to food. The need for more programmes for poverty alleviation and employment was needed as well as market regulation for agriculture also with opening up of global trade exports of surplus.

PHASE 3 – the agriculture sector issues transferred to the problems of farmers income, fair prices for produce, irrigation and water scarcity, climate change impact in agriculture etc. hence the need for sustainable agriculture  and doubling the farmer’s income characterizes the present agriculture sector.

Aspects of Indian Agriculture sector

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