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The Green Revolution in India refers to a period in India when agriculture was converted into an industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods. Mainly led by agricultural scientist M. S. Swami Nathan in India, this period was part of the larger Green revolution endeavour initiated by Norman Borlaug, which leveraged agricultural research and technology to increase agricultural productivity in the developing world.

The food grain production was achieved especially in wheat and rice. This was an agricultural strategy introduced in 1967-78. It was a package program comprising of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers and pesticides, assured water supply, supply of electricity at subsidized rates, improvement of rural infrastructure, credit and marketing facilities, buffer stock and price support.


  1. Double/ Multiple Cropping system
  2. Seeds with superior genetics
  3. Proper irrigation system
  4. High Yielding Variety (HYV) of seeds
  5. Use of pesticides and fertilizers
  6. Use of modern machinery (Tractor, Harvester, Thrasher)
  7. Expansion of farming areas


The Green Revolution was first introduced in Punjab in wheat and rice. Later in 1980s it was introduced all over the country and other food grains. After 1966 there was a substantial increase in food production, especially wheat production, as a result of the new agricultural strategy. Later it was restricted to five crops i.e. wheat, rice, Jowar, Bajra and maize.

Wheat output raised more than fourfold from 2.44 million metric tonnes to 10.2 million tonnes (Bhalla et a1 1990). It is contended that part of the above trend was the result of the growth of wheat yields, which grew 120 per cent during 1965-78 and the remainder to increases in planted wheat area. Rice production in Punjab amplified more than tenfold, from 0.5 million tonnes in 1969 to 5.1 million tonnes in 1984-85 (Bhalla, et al., 1990). As a result, by 1985, per capita income in Punjab was 50 per cent higher than the national average (Chopra 1986).

  • Larger scale production
  • Increased machinery usage
  • Reduction of import of food grains
  • Multiple cropping
  • Socio-economic impact – Income Disparities and regional disparity was observed
  • Ecological impact – water logging, soil loosing fertility, water table depletion, salinization of soil.

Hence green revolution was a successful step for increasing productivity but had several limitations like ecological degradation, economic disparity etc. After recommendations of M.S. Swami Nathan Committee on agriculture reforms the need for Second Green Revolution is felt.


It was introduced in 2004 to widen the scope of green revolution of larger aspects. It ranges across cropping patterns, diversification, checking post-harvest losses, sustainable practices, and water conservation. Encourage bio fertilizers, organic farming etc. also the need to improve infrastructure, storage, and value addition agro processing. The 11th five year plan includes this holistic approach to agriculture.


The supply of water from various sources for the purpose of agriculture is Irrigation. The sources of irrigation varies from surface, to groundwater, river and canals etc.  It is the replacement or supplementation of rainwater with another source of water. It is used in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall.

Since ancient times irrigation has been managed well in India. The water use management for agriculture was planned by the Kings by ways of construction of dams, canals and tanks etc. hence  water use efficiency has been a vital element of Indian agriculture which is monsoon dependent.


  1. WELL AND TUBE IRRIGATION – Wells are mainly found in U.P., Bihar, Tamil Nadu, etc. There are various types of wells – SHALLOW WELLS, DEEP WELLS, TUBE WELLS, ARTESIAN WELLS, etc. Deep wells are more suitable for the purpose of irrigation as water from them is available throughout the year.

2.CANAL IRRIGATION–  Canals can be an effective source of irrigation in areas of low level relief, deep fertile soils, perennial source of water and extensive command area. Therefore, the main concentration of canal irrigation is in the northern plain of India, especially the areas comprising Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab.

  1. TANK IRRIGATION – A tank is developed by constructing a small bund of earth or stones built across a stream. The water impounded by the bund is used for irrigation and other purposes. Tank comprises an important source of irrigation in the Karnataka Plateau, MP, Maharashtra, Odisha, Kerala Bundelkhand area of UP, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
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