AGRICULTURE - 05
Drip irrigation, water is applied near the plant root through emitters or drippers, on or below the soil surface, at a low rate varying from 2-20 liters per hour. The soil moisture is kept at an optimum level with frequent irrigations. It can be practiced for a large variety of crops, especially in vegetables, orchard crops, flowers and plantation crops.
water is sprayed into the air and allowed to fall on the ground surface somewhat resembling rainfall. The spray is developed by the flow of water under pressure through small orifices or nozzles. The sprinkler irrigation system is a very suitable method for irrigation on uneven lands and on shallow soils. Except crops like paddy, jute, etc. dry crops are suitable for sprinkler system.
IRRIGATION POTENTIAL IN INDIA
India currently has an overall irrigation potential of about 140 million hectares have been created, about 80 million hectare utilized. Gross irrigation area as a percent of Gross cropped area has increased form 34% in 1990-91 to 51% in 2014-15.
Expansion of irrigation facilities along with consolidation of existing system has been the main strategy for increasing production of food grains. The government has devised various irrigation programmes with the aim to increase the cropped area under irrigation. Through these projects the areas under irrigation has increased from 22.6Mha in 1951 to 108.2 Mha by 2010. Around 73% of the total area potential has been reached.
PLANNING COMMISSION HAS CLASSIFIED IRRIGATION SCHEMES as following:
- Major Irrigation Schemes – those with cultural command areas (CCA) more than 10000 hectares
- Medium Irrigation Schemes – those with CCA between 2000Mha to 10000Mha
- Minor Irrigation Schemes – those with CCA up to 2000 Mha.
SCHEMES FOR IRRIGATION
COMMANDS AREA DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME – it was started in 1974-75 as a centrally sponsored scheme. Its aim is to reduce the gap between irrigation potential created and utilised as well as to increase the overall crop production from irrigated lands on a sustainable basis.
ACCELERATED IRRIGATION BENEFIT PROGRAMME – introduced in 1996-97 to ensure early completion of irrigation projects. The centre provides additional assistance by way of loan to states on matching basis for early completion of selected large irrigation and multipurpose projects.
PMKSY (PRADHAN MANTRI KRISHI SINCHAYI YOJANA)
It was launched in 2015 by the government to ensure access to some means of protective irrigation to all agricultural farms in the country, to produce ‘per drop more crop’, thus bringing much desired rural prosperity.
The broad objectives of PMKSY include
- Achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level (preparation of district level and, if required, sub district level water use plans).
- Enhance the physical access of water on the farm and expand cultivable area under assured irrigation (Har Khet ko pani).
- Integration of water source, distribution and its efficient use, to make best use of water through appropriate technologies and practices.
- Improve on – farm water use efficiency to reduce wastage and increase availability both in duration and extent.
- Enhance the adoption of precision – irrigation and other water saving technologies (More crop per drop).
- Enhance recharge of aquifers and introduce sustainable water conservation practices.
- Ensure the integrated development of rain fed areas using the watershed approach towards soil and water conservation, regeneration of ground water, arresting runoff, providing livelihood options and other NRM activities.
- Promote extension activities relating to water harvesting, water management and crop alignment for farmers and grass root level field functionaries.
- Explore the feasibility of reusing treated municipal waste water for peri – urban agriculture.
- Krishi Sinchayee Yojana with an outlay of Rs.50, 000 crores for a period of 5 years (2015-16 to 2019-20) is to achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level.
- PMKSY has been formulated amalgamating on going schemes viz. Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) of Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation; Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) of Department of Land Resources; and On Farm Water Management (OFWM) component of National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) of Department of Agriculture and Cooperation.
- PMKSY is to be implemented in an area development approach, adopting decentralized state level planning and projectised execution, allowing the states to draw their irrigation development plans based on district/blocks plans with a horizon of 5 to 7 years. States can take up projects based on the District/State Irrigation Plan.
- All the States and Union Territories including North Eastern States are covered under the programme.
- The National Steering Committee (NSC) of PMKSY under the chairmanship of Prime Minister, will provide policy direction to programme framework and a National Executive Committee (NEC) under the chairmanship of Vice Chairman of NITI Aayog will oversee the programme implementation at national level.
- Provision has been made under PMKSY during 2015-16 for carrying out extension activities in the field with special focus on water harvesting, water management and crop alignment for farmers and grass root level field functionaries.
PMKSY has the following programme components:
- ACCELERATED IRRIGATION BENEFIT PROGRAMME (AIBP)
- To focus on faster completion of ongoing Major and Medium Irrigation including National Projects.