Chapters :

Agriculture – 13

Agriculture Export Policy

In order to provide an impetus to agricultural exports, the Government has come out with a comprehensive “Agriculture Export Policy” aimed at doubling the agricultural exports and integrating Indian farmers and agricultural products with the global value chains. The Agriculture Export Policy has the following vision:

“Harness export potential of Indian agriculture, through suitable policy   instruments, to make India global power in agriculture and raise farmers’     income.”


Objectives of the Agriculture Export Policy are as under:

  • To double agricultural exports from present ~US$ 30+ Billion to ~US$ 60+ Billion by 2022 and reach US$ 100 Billion in the next few years thereafter, with a stable trade policy regime.
  • To diversify our export basket, destinations and boost high value and value added agricultural exports including focus on perishables.
  • To promote novel, indigenous, organic, ethnic, traditional and non-traditional Agri products exports.
  • To provide an institutional mechanism for pursuing market access, tackling barriers and deal with sanitary and phyto-sanitary issues.
  • To strive to double India’s share in world agri exports by integrating with global value chain at the earliest.
  • Enable farmers to get benefit of export opportunities in overseas market.

Elements of Agriculture Export Policy:

The recommendations in the Agriculture Export Policy have been organised in two categories – Strategic and Operational – as detailed below:

StrategicPolicy measures
Infrastructure and logistics support
Holistic approach to boost exports
Greater involvement of State Governments in agri exports
 Focus on Clusters
 Promoting value-added exports
 Marketing and promotion of “Brand India
OperationalAttract private investments into production and processing
 Establishment of strong quality regimen
 Research & Development


The Agri allied sector includes various other activities such as animal husbandry, poultry farming, horticulture, fisheries, agro-forestry, beekeeping etc.


Livestock is commonly defined as domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labour and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.

Animal husbandry refers to livestock rising and selective breeding. It is the management and care of animals in which the genetic qualities and behavior of animals are further developed for profit. A large number of farmers depend upon animal husbandry for their livelihood.

Livestock plays an important role in Indian economy. About 20.5 million people depend upon livestock for their livelihood. Livestock contributed 16% to the income of small farm households as against an average of 14% for all rural households. Livestock provides livelihood to two-third of rural community. It also provides employment to about 8.8 % of the population in India. India has vast livestock resources. Livestock sector contributes 4.11% GDP and 25.6% of total Agriculture GDP.


  • World’s highest livestock owner at about 535.78 million
  • First in the total buffalo population in the world – 109.85 million buffaloes
  • Second in the population of goats – 148.88 million goats
  • Second largest poultry market in the world
  • Second largest producer of fish and also second largest aquaculture nation in the world
  • Third in the population of sheep (74.26 millions)
  • Fifth in in the population of ducks and chicken (851.81 million)
  • Tenth in camel population in the world – 2.5 lakhs

Benefits of Livestock:

  1. Provides food, fibre, skin, drugs, weed control, dung for energy etc
  2. Milk and milk products
  3. Provides income to farmers
  4. Employemnt
  5. Social security
  6. Animal rearing provides economies of scale and suitable for exports


It is the production of milk and related products for commercial use. The protection, breeding and maintenance of cows is also included. India is the leading producer of milk in the world with 187.7 million tonnes of milk produced in 2018-19.  It constitutes 18% of the world milk production.

White Revolution

It was the program for increase in milk production in 1964-65 under the Intensive Cattle Development Programme. Operation flood was introduced to integrate the largest dairy sector in the world. It was spearheaded by the cooperative societies. Dr.Varghese Kurian is the pioneer of this operation flood. Operation flood was started in 1970 by the National Dairydevelopment board.

A National Milk Grid links milk producers throughout India with consumers in over 700 towns and cities, reducing seasonal and regional price variations while ensuring that the producer gets fair market prices in a transparent manner on a regular basis.

The bedrock of Operation Flood has been village milk producers’ cooperatives, which procure milk and provide inputs and services, making modern management and technology available to members. Operation Flood’s objectives included:

  • Increase milk production (“a flood of milk”)
  • Augment rural incomes
  • Reasonable prices for consumers

Government schemes for this sector

National Mission for Bovine Productivity (NMBP): It has been approved by the government of India to make milk production more profitable.

Rashtriya Gokul Mission: Its objective is to preserve and develop indigenous bovine. Activities to be taken under this mission: Establishment of Gokul Gram, awarding farmers and institutes involved in the scientific rearing of Indigenous animals and inducting high genetic merit Bulls of Indigenous Breed into Semen Stations.

E-Pashu Haat portal: It has been established under Rashtriya Gokul Mission. Objectives of this portal: Helping the livestock rearers and the farmers to sell and purchase Cattle and Buffaloes of Indigenous Breeds. Ensuring availability of quality bovine germplasm by linking farmers with livestock rearers.

National Kamdhenu Breeding Centres:  Two National Kamdhenu Breeding Centres are being established (one in Madhya Pradesh and the other in Andhra Pradesh). These will be centres of excellence for preservation and development of Indigenous Breeds in a scientific way. They would be a storehouse of Indigenous Germplasm as well as a source of proven genetics.

Poultry Sector

Poultry farming is concerned with raising and breeding of birds for commercial purposes. Birds like ducks, chickens, geese, pigeons, turkeys, etc. are domesticated for eggs and meat. The poultry sector majorly maintains the requirements of protein and nutrition. India today is one of the largest manufacturers of eggs and broiler meat. India is the world’s 3rd largest egg producer and 6th largest producer of broilers. The Indian poultry market, comprising of broilers and eggs was worth INR 1,750 Billion in 2018 and was worth INR 2049 Billion in 2019.

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