Chapters :
  • ENDANGERED SPECIES
  • VALUES OF BIODIVERSITY
  • ECOLOGICAL VALUE
  • CONSUMPTIVE USE VALUE
  • PRODUCTIVE USE VALUE
  • ETHICAL AND MORAL VALUES
  • MAJOR THREATS TO THE BIODIVERSITY
  • THREATS & THEIR CAUSES
  • SPECIES EXTINCTION
  • HIPPO, OR THE SIXTH MASS EXTINCTION
  • BIO PIRACY
  • CONVENTION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY (CBD)
  • Primary Authorities under the Act

BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION – 04

CASE STUDIES OF BIO PIRACY

BASMATI RICE:

Basmati Rice, an indigenous long-grain rice native to India, is one of the major exporting commodity of India to US, Middle East and EU markets. Rice-Tech an American firm filed for a patent for certain hybrid of Basmati Rice that they claimed developed by the firm in 2000, and filed for the exclusive use of their trademark Basmati in US markets. After the intervention from Indian government, several claims of the patent were invalidated.

NEEM

WR Grace, an American firm along with US Department of Agriculture obtained an EU patent in 1994 for antifungal chemicals that they have extracted from Neem trees (Azadirachta Indica). However, neem is being used for centuries in Indian traditional system of Ayurveda. Prominent environmentalist groups from around the world (including Vandana Siva from India) opposed this patent in 2000. Finally, the EU patent office revoked the patent in 2005.

TURMERIC

At least four US patents were granted on the medicinal uses of Indian plant turmeric, the famous among them is the patent filed by two Indian expatriate scientists from University of Mississippi Medical Centre, US for the use of turmeric powder in wound healing. India’s CSIR filed an application with the US patent office to revoke the patent as the turmeric had been in use in Ayurveda for ‘thousands of years”. 

The CSIR even produced ancient Sanskrit texts and previous papers on the medicinal uses of turmeric powder. In response, the US patent office revoked not only this particular patent, but also all the rest 3 patents for the uses of turmeric.

ENOLA BEAN

The Mexican yellow bean is an edible bean cultivated throughout Mexico. In 1999 a patent for this bean was granted by the US Patent Office. The bean was named Enola in the patent application after the name of the wife of the patent applicant, Enola. Mexican farmers filed an application with the US patent office to revoke the patent. In 2008, the US patent office ruled in favour of Mexican farmers and revoked the patent.

BIO- DIVERSITY  CONSERVATION

 

IN SITU CONSERVATION:

In situ Conservation is one of the methods of the conservation of genetic resources in natural populations of plant or animal species. In other words, it is a set of conservation techniques involving the designation, management and monitoring of biodiversity in the same area where it is encountered.

Eg: Biosphere Reserve, National Parks , Sanctuaries etc. 

EX – SITU CONSERVATION

Ex situ Conservation is one of the methods of the conservation of living organism outside their natural habitat through genetic conservation. It includes both captive propagation of species and their eventual release into natural or restored ecosystem . Ex : Zoo , Aquarium 

                             In situ and Ex situ Conservation – Comparision

In situ ConservationEx situ Conservation
It means conservation of biodiversity on site.It means conservation of biodiversity from their site of occurrence.
Protected areas are the sanctuaries and national parks.Artificial conditions are created to make their habitat almost like a natural habitat.
Establish protected area network, with appropriate management practices, corridors to link fragments restore degraded habitats within and outside.Established botanical and zoological gardens, conservation stands; banks of germ plasm, pollen, seed, seedling, tissue culture, gene and DNA etc.
It provides greater mobility to the animal species because of large habitat area.It provides less mobility to the organism because of small habitat area.
Example- National parks, biosphere reserves, parks, sanctuaries.Example- Zoo, aquarium, seed banks

BIO PROSPECTING

Biodiversity prospecting, or bio prospecting, is the systematic and sustainableexploration of biochemical and genetic resources from the nature, and its further development into valuable products 

It is estimated that more than 90 percentages of drugs currently in world’s market came directly from organisms, especially plants. Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology enable us to explore wild genes from the organisms and cloning them to other organisms for various benefits.

Under the umbrella term Bio prospecting all efforts of utilization ofbiodiversity for the benefit of human beings is covered.This include development of drugs either directly from the natural products.

The development of natural products into industrial products such as dyes, anti-fouling compounds, paints, glues, cosmetics and so on, development of natural products to supplement agri-food industry through its direct use as food, food additives, dietary supplements, fodder and fertilizer, development of natural products for biofuel as well as for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), exploration and utilization of biodiversity for aesthetics, tourism.

BIO DIVERSITY  CONSERVATION

PROTECTED AREAS OF INDIA

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) classify Protected areas are those in which human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited. 

The term “protected area” also includes Marine Protected Areas, the boundaries of which will include some area of ocean, and Transboundary Protected Areas that overlap multiple countries which remove the borders inside the area for conservation and economic purposes.

  • National Parks 
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries 
  • Conservation Reserves  
  • Community Reserves  
  • Marine Protected Areas  

NATIONAL PARKS:

( India National Park Map , Kaziranga ,Ranthambore ,Corbett, Kanha National Park)

  • National parks are also established for the protection of flora and fauna.They are protected areas intended to provide a natural habitat with all natural resources to the animals where they can freely roam and use the habitat.
  • These areas are extended and diverse enough to protect the entire ecosystem including the flora, fauna, historic objects and the natural landscapes.

An area, whether within a sanctuary or not, can be notified by the state government to be constituted as a National Park, by reason of its ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, or zoological association or importance, needed to for the purpose of protecting & propagating or developing wildlife therein or its environment. 

No human activity is permitted inside the national park except for the ones permitted by the Chief Wildlife Warden of the state under the conditions given in CHAPTER IV, WPA (Wildlife Protection Act) 1972.

There are 104 existing national parks in India covering an area of 40501.13 km2, which is 1.23% of the geographical area of the country (National Wildlife Database, May, 2019)- 

WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES

Any area other than area comprised with any reserve forest or the territorial waters can be notified by the State Government to constitute as a sanctuary if such area is of adequate ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, natural. or zoological significance, for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment. Some restricted human activities are allowed inside the Sanctuary area details of which are given in CHAPTER IV, WPA 1972.There are 551 existing wildlife sanctuaries in India covering an area of  119775.80 km2, which is 3.64 % of the geographical area of the country (National Wildlife Database, May, 2019).

CONSERVATION RESERVES AND COMMUNITY RESERVES

Conservation reserves and community reserves in India are terms denoting protected areas of India which typically act as buffer zones to or connectors and migration corridors between established national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserved and protected forests of India. Such areas are designated as conservation areas if they are uninhabited and completely owned by the Government of India but used for subsistence by communities and community areas if part of the lands are privately owned.

These protected area categories were first introduced in the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act of 2002 − the amendment to the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972. These categories were added because of reduced protection in and around existing or proposed protected areas due to private ownership of land, and land use.

MARINE PROTECTED AREAS

A Marine Protected Area (MPA) is essentially a space in the ocean where human activities are more strictly regulated than the surrounding waters – similar to parks we have on land. 

These are notified under wildlife protection act 1972. Marine protected areas are essential to safeguard biodiversity and to sustain vibrant seas and can increase biomass and biodiversity in tropical and temperate ecosystems. 

They serve as insurance policies against the impacts of fishing and other destructive activities. The important species found in the Indian waters include, Dugongs, Whales, Dolphins, Olive Ridley Turtles, a variety of fishes including the Whale Sharks & other sharks, Giant Groupers, Sea cucumbers, horseshoe crabs, sea shells, soft & hard corals, etc.

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