Chapters :

Environment resources & its Utilization- 01

Migratory species

Migratory species threatened with extinction are listed on Appendix I of the Convention. CMS Parties strive towards strictly protecting these animals, conserving or restoring the places where they live, mitigating obstacles to migration and controlling other factors that might endanger them. Besides establishing obligations for each State joining the Convention, CMS promotes concerted action among the Range States of many of these species.

Migratory species that need or would significantly benefit from international co-operation are listed in Appendix II of the Convention. For this reason, the Convention encourages the Range States to conclude global or regional agreements.

In this respect, CMS acts as a framework Convention. The agreements may range from legally binding treaties (called Agreements) to less formal instruments, such as Memoranda of Understanding, and can be adapted to the requirements of particular regions. The development of models tailored according to the conservation needs throughout the migratory range is a unique capacity to CMS.

The 13th Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention on the conservation of migratory species of wild animals (CMS), an environmental treaty under the aegis of United Nations Environment Programme, is going to be hosted by India during 15th to 22nd February, 2020 at Gandhinagar in Gujarat.


India has also signed non legally binding MOU with CMS on the conservation and management of Siberian Cranes (1998), Marine Turtles (2007), Dugongs (2008) and Raptors (2016).

India is temporary home to several migratory animals and birds. The important among these include Amur Falcons, Bar headed Gheese, Black necked cranes, Marine turtles, Dugongs, Humpbacked Whales, etc.  The Indian sub-continent is also part of the major bird flyway network, i.e, the Central Asian Flyway (CAF) that covers areas between the Arctic and Indian Oceans, and covers at least 279 populations of 182 migratory water bird species, including 29 globally threatened species. India has also launched the National Action Plan for conservation of migratory species under the Central Asian Flyway.


ITTO is an intergovernmental organization promoting the conservation and sustainable management, use and trade of tropical forest resources. Its members represent about 80% of the world’s tropical forests and 90% of the global tropical timber trade.

ITTO was established under the auspices of the UN in 1986. India is a member of this organization

Learning outcomes:

In this unit you will be able to learn the following:

  • The different types of natural resources and its uses
  • The consumption pattern of various resources like water, land fossil fuels etc.
  • The energy scenario of the world and usage of renewable and non-renewable energy
  • The over exploitation of these resources and the ill effects of such usage
  • The strategies for efficient usage of natural resources
  • To know about the sustainable resources and its governance for a sustainable future


Our environment provides us with a variety of goods and services necessary for our day to day lives. These natural resources include, Air, Water, Soil, Minerals, along with the climate and solar energy. Interactions between the abiotic aspects of nature and specific living organisms together form ecosystems of various types and habitats which provide various natural resources for the organisms to utilize and thrive upon.  Many of these living organisms are used as our food resources. 

These resources are classified as renewable and non-renewable based on their capacity to replenish naturally over time and be as a continuous source for consumption. 

  1. RENEWABLE RESOURCES –they are resources which are naturally replenished over time and remain as a constant source of energy. For e.g. the solar energy is a constant heat and light energy, the water also due to its hydrological nature is a replenishing energy resource.
  2. NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY – These are minerals that have been formed in the lithosphere over millions of years and constitute a closed system. These non-renewable resources, once used, remain on earth in a different form and, unless recycled, become waste material. Non-renewable resources include fossil fuels such as oil and coal, which if extracted at the present rate, will soon be totally used up. The end products of fossil fuels are in the form of heat and mechanical energy and chemical com- pounds, which cannot be reconstituted as a resource.


About ten thousand years ago, when mankind changed from a hunter-gatherer, living in wilderness areas such as forests and grasslands, into an agriculturalist and pastoralist, we began to change the environment to suit our own requirements. As our ability to grow food and use domestic animals grew, these ‘natural’ ecosystems were developed into agricultural land depending extensively on Rain, Streams And Rivers For Water. Later they began to use wells to tap underground water sources and to impound water and created irrigated land by building dams.

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