Environment resources & its Utilization- 04
India is expected to face critical levels of water stress by 2025. At the global level 31 countries are already short of water and by 2025 there will be 48 countries facing serious water short- ages. The UN has estimated that by the year 2050, 4 billion people will be seriously affected by water shortages. This will lead to multiple conflicts between countries over the sharing of water. Around 20 major cities in India face chronic or interrupted water shortages.
According to the Composite Water Management Index (CWMI) report released by the Niti Aayog in 2018, 21 major cities (Delhi, Bengaluru, Chennai, Hyderabad and others) are racing to reach zero groundwater levels by 2020, affecting access for 100 million people.
However, 12% of India’s population is already living the ‘Day Zero’ scenario, due to excessive groundwater pumping, an inefficient and wasteful water management system and years of deficient rains. The CWMI report also states that by 2030, the country’s water demand is projected to be twice the available supply, implying severe water scarcity for hundreds of millions of people and an eventual six per cent loss in the country’s GDP.
Problems related to water overexploitation and mismanagement
- Water scarcity
- Water contamination
- Groundwater depletion
- Groundwater contamination
- River water pollution
- Lake eutrophication
- River siltation
- Communicable diseases
- Agricultural fields salinity
- Inter –state water disputes
- Water wars
- Zero days in urban areas
- Urban flooding
- Agricultural and rural distress
WATER MANAGEMENT – CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES