Chapters :

Environment resources & its Utilization- 06

Sustainable Water Management Poses Numerous Challenges:

  • Bridging The Increasing Gap Between Demand And Supply
  • Providing Enough Water For Production Of Food
  • Balancing The Uses Between Competing Demand
  •  Meeting The Growing Demands Of Big Cities
  • Treatment Of Wastewater
  • Sharing Of Water with the neighbouring countries and among the co-basin states. 

In India, Floods, Water-Logging, Soil Erosion, Drought Salty Groundwater, etc. are some of the major problems of water management for agriculture and other needs. 


Water is the key to food security. Agriculture accounts for 85% of India’s water consumption which provide subsistence and livelihood support to more than 58% of population. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO) the world population is predicted to grow 8.3 billion in 2030 and 9.1 billion in 2050. By 2030, food demand is predicted to increase by 60%. 

India has well developed irrigation infrastructure that allows the country to be self-sufficient in food grain production. The chief grain producing states in India (Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, and Haryana, home to major water basins) has already crossed their surface irrigation potential and now farmers are withdrawing ground water and many of these regions have been categorized as water-stressed zones because the rate of withdrawal has either exceeded, or is about to exceed, the rate of recharging. Anthropogenic water logging in irrigation commands leads to the loss of productive land to agriculture and also the large inadvertent water evaporation/evapotranspiration of the swampy areas.


Water and energy are closely interlinked and interdependent. Energy generation and transmission requires utilization of water resources, particularly For Hydroelectric, Nuclear, And Thermal Energy Sources. Bio-fuel production is linked to increases in water pollution through increased use of fertilizers and agricultural chemicals. Conversely, about 8% of the global energy generation is used for pumping, treating and transporting water to various consumers. Co-production of water and energy, as is the case for geothermal energy generation, offers interesting opportunities to energy and water scarce countries energy and food are inextricably linked and impose a great challenge but these are addressed in isolation with in sectoral boundaries. 

Water is an input for producing agricultural goods in the fields and along the entire agro-food supply chain. Energy is required to produce and distribute water and food (To Pump Water From Groundwater, To Power Tractors, Irrigation Machinery, and to process & transport agricultural goods). 

Growing Bio Energy Crops under irrigated agriculture can increase overall water withdrawals and jeopardize food security. Converting surface irrigation into high efficiency pressurized irrigation may save water but may also result in higher energy use. Recognizing these synergies and balancing these trade-offs is central to jointly ensuring water, energy and food security.

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