Chapters :

Environmental Pollution – 03

Integration in water resource management

At the local level, where important gains and win-win situations are possible, e.g. by integrating irrigation management, water supply, ground water recharge and storm water management: or by bringing together irrigation, drainage, and reuse management; or by taking joint account of water quality and quantity; or by improving the management of main water operators- such as water supply companies, irrigation agencies and farmer groups.

Better management to reduce the demand for the water has great potential to reduce water stress and hydropower requirements. An improved system, management, particularly for irrigated agriculture, has tremendous potential for reducing waste, while increasing the efficiency of irrigation systems.

Land resource 

Land is an essential natural resource, both for the survival and prosperity of humanity, and for the maintenance of all terrestrial ecosystems. Over millennia, people have exorbitantly exploited land resources for their own ends. The limits on these resources are finite while human demands on them are not. Increased demand, or pressure on land resources, shows up as declining crop production, degradation of land quality and quantity, and competition for land. Attention should now be focused on the role of humankind as stewards rather than exploiters, charged with the responsibility of safeguarding the rights of unborn generations and of conserving land as the basis of the global ecosystem.

Land is not regarded simply in terms of soils and surface topography, but encompasses such features as underlying superficial deposits, climate and water resources, and also the plant and animal communities which have developed as a result of the interaction of these physical conditions. The results of human activities, reflected by changes in vegetative cover or by structures, are also regarded as features of the land. Changing one of the factors, such as land use, has potential impacts on other factors, such as flora and fauna, soils, surface water distribution and climate. Changes in these factors can be readily explained by ecosystem dynamics and the importance of their relationships in planning and management of land resources has become increasingly evident.

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