Chapters :
  • CLIMATOLOGY – 01
  • DISTRIBUTION OF LAURENTIAN CLIMATE
  • NORTH AMERICAN REGION
  • ASIATIC REGION
  • ABSENT IN SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE
  • LAURENTIAN CLIMATE TEMPERTATURE
  • PRECIPITATION
  • THE NORTH AMERICAN REGION
  • THE ASIATIC REGION

  • JAPAN
  • NATURAL VEGETATION – LAURENTIAN CLIMATE

CLIMATOLOGY – 01

LAURENTIAN CLIMATE OR COOL TEMPERATE EASTERN MARINE CLIMATE
  • Intermediate type of climate between the British Type Climate (moderate) and the Taiga Type Climate (extreme) of climate.
  • It has features of both the maritime and the continental climates.
DISTRIBUTION OF LAURENTIAN CLIMATE
  • Laurentian type of climate is found only in two regions and that too only in the northern hemisphere.
NORTH AMERICAN REGION
  • North-eastern North America, including eastern Canada, north-east U.S.A., and Newfoundland. This may be referred to as the North American region.
ASIATIC REGION
  • Eastern coastlands of Asia, including eastern Siberia, North China, Manchuria, Korea and northern Japan.
ABSENT IN SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE
  • In the southern hemisphere only a small section of continents extends south of 40°S latitude.
  • Some of these small sections come under the rain-shadow region of Andes (Patagonia) and hence Westerlies hardly ever reach these regions.
  • So these regions are subjected to aridity rather than continentiality.
  • In other regions, the oceanic influence is so profound that neither the continental nor the eastern margin type of climate exists.
LAURENTIAN CLIMATE TEMPERTATURE
  • Characterized by cold, dry winters and warm, wet summers.
  • Winter temperatures is below freezing-point and snow fall is quite natural.
  • Summers are as warm as the tropics (~25 °C).
PRECIPITATION
  • Rainfall occurs throughout the year with summer maxima [easterly winds from the oceans bring rains]
  • Annual rainfall ranges from 75 to 150 cm [two – thirds of rainfall occurs in the summer].
  • Dry Westerlies that blow from continental interiors dominate winters.
THE NORTH AMERICAN REGION
  • In summer, prolonged heat waves cause discomfort.
  • In winter, the temperature drops below freezing and snowfall occurs.
  • Precipitation occurs all-round the year due to the influence of Atlantic ocean (summer) and the Great Lakes (winter).
  • The warm Gulf Stream increases the moisture of easterly winds.
  • The prevailing Westerlies carry depressions over the Great Lakes towards eastern regions causing wet conditions in winter [vital for the agricultural activities].
  • Convergence of the warm Gulf Stream and the cold Labrador Current near Newfoundland produces dense mist and fog and gives rise to much precipitation.
  • It is said that Newfoundland experiences more drizzles than any other part of the world.
THE ASIATIC REGION
  • Rainfall distribution of the Asiatic region is far less uniform when compared to North American Region.
  • Winters are cold and very dry while summers are very warm and exceptionally wet.
  • The rainfall regime resembles the tropical monsoon type in India.
  • Intense heating of the mountainous interior of China in summer creates a region of extreme low pressure, and moisture-laden winds from the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan blow in as the South-East Monsoon.
  • Thus the Laurentian type of climate in China is often described as the Cool Temperate Monsoon Climate.
  • It has a very long, cold winter, and a large annual range of temperature.
  • Much of the winter precipitation in northern China, Korea and Hokkaido, Japan, is in the form of snow.
JAPAN
  • The climate of Japan is modified by the meeting of warm and cold ocean currents.
  • It receives adequate rainfall from both the South-East Monsoon in summer and the North- West Monsoon in winter (western coasts of Japan)
  • The warm Kuroshio makes the climate of Japan less extreme.
  • The meeting zone between warm Kuroshio from south and cold Oyashio from the north produce fog and mist, making north Japan a ‘second Newfoundland’.
  • Fishing replaces agriculture as the main occupation in many of the indented coastlands.
NATURAL VEGETATION – LAURENTIAN CLIMATE
  • The predominant vegetation is cool temperate forest.
  • The heavy rainfall, the warm summers and the damp air from fogs, all favor the growth of trees.
  • Forest tend to be coniferous north of the 50°N latitude.
  • In the Asiatic region (eastern Siberia and Korea), the coniferous forests are a continuation of the great coniferous belt of the taiga.
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