Chapters :
  • MEDITERRANEAN EVERGREEN FORESTS
  • EVERGREEN CONIFEROUS TREES
  • MEDITERRANEAN BUSHES AND SHRUBS
  • GRASS
  • CROP CULTIVATION AND SHEEP REARING
  • WINE PRODUCTION
  • ECONOMY

Precipitation – 03

MEDITERRANEAN EVERGREEN FORESTS
  • These are open woodlands with evergreen oaks.
  • They are found only in the climatically most favored regions.
  • The trees are normally low, even stunted, with massive trunks, small leathery leaves and a wide-spreading root system in search of water.
  • The cork oaks are specially valued for their thick barks, used for making wine-bottle corks and for export around the world.
  • In Australia, the Eucalyptus forests replace the evergreen oak.
  • The giant Redwood Is Typical Of The Californian Trees.
EVERGREEN CONIFEROUS TREES
  • These include the various kinds of Pines, Firs, Cedars And cypresses which have evergreen, needle-shaped leaves and tall, straight trunks.
MEDITERRANEAN BUSHES AND SHRUBS
  • This is perhaps the most predominant type of Mediterranean vegetation.
GRASS
  • Conditions in the Mediterranean do not suit grass, because most of the rain comes in the cool season when growth is slow.
  • Even if grasses do survive, they are so wiry [lean, tough] and bunchy that they are not suitable for animal farming.
  • Cattle rearing is thus unimportant in the Mediterranean.
AGRICULTURE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE ORCHARD FARMING
  • The Mediterranean lands are also known as the World’s Orchard Lands.
  • A wide range of citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons, limes, citrons and grapefruit are grown.
  • The fruit trees have long roots to draw water from considerable depths during the long summer drought.
  • The thick, leathery skin of the citrus fruits prevents excessive transpiration.
  • The long, sunny summer enables the fruits to be ripened and harvested.
  • The Mediterranean lands account for 70 per cent of the world’s exports of citrus fruits.
  • The olive tree is probably the most typical of all Mediterranean cultivated vegetation.
  • Olive oil extracted is a valuable source of cooking oil in a region deficient in animal fat.
  • Besides olives, many nut trees like chestnuts, walnuts, hazelnuts and almonds are grown and the nuts picked as fruits or for the chocolate industry.
CROP CULTIVATION AND SHEEP REARING Wheat is the leading food crop. Barley is the next most popular cereal.
  • The mountain pastures, with their cooler climate, support a few sheep, goats and sometimes cattle.
  • Transhumance is widely practiced (moving up and down the hills in search of pastures according to seasons).
WINE PRODUCTION
  • VITICULTURE IS BY TRADITION A MEDITERRANEAN OCCUPATION.
  • Regions bordering the Mediterranean Sea account for three-quarters of the world’s production of wine.
  • Some 85 per cent of grapes produced, go into wine.
  • The long, sunny summer allows the grapes to ripen.
ECONOMY Net exporter of citric fruits and net importer of dairy products.
  • Clear skies in summer and good landscapes encourage tourism [Lot of Indian Songs are shot here].
  • European Mediterranean has many ancient cities and are famous for their health and pleasure resorts, frequented by millions all-round the year.
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