Chapters :
  • BRITISH TYPE CLIMATE
  • DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH TYPE CLIMATE
  • EUROPE
  • NORTH AMERICA
  • SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE
  • BRITISH TYPE CLIMATE
  • TEMPERATURE
  • PRECIPITATION
  • THE SEASONS
  • NATURAL VEGETATION IN BRITISH TYPE CLIMATE
  • ECONOMY IN BRITISH TYPE CLIMATE

Precipitation – 06

BRITISH TYPE CLIMATE
  • Westerlies come all the year round.
  • There is a tendency towards an autumn or winter maximum of rainfall.
  • Light snow falls in winter.
  • Ports are never frozen but frosts do occur on cold nights.
  • The seasons are very distinct. And the climate is very favorable for maximum human output.
BRITISH TYPE CLIMATE OR COOL TEMPERATE WESTERN MARGIN CLIMATE OR NORTH-WEST EUROPEAN MARITIME CLIMATE.
  • The cool temperate western margins are under the influence of the Westerlies all-round the year.
  • They are the regions of frontal cyclonic activity [Temperate Cyclones].
  • This type of climate is typical to Britain, hence the name ‘British Type’.
  • Also called as North-West European Maritime Climate due to greater oceanic influence.
DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH TYPE CLIMATE EUROPE
  • Most pronounced in and around Britain.
  • In Europe the climate extends inland some 2,000 km.
  • Climatic belt stretches far inland into the lowlands of North-West Europe (northern and western France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, western Norway and also north-western Iberia).
NORTH AMERICA
  • Confined mainly to the coastlands of British Columbia. [high Rockies prevent the on-shore Westerlies from penetrating far inland]
SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE
  • The climate is experienced in southern Chile, Southern Australia, Tasmania and most parts of New Zealand.
BRITISH TYPE CLIMATE
  • Moderately warm summers and fairly mild winters.
  • Rainfall occurs throughout the year with winter maxima.
TEMPERATURE
  • The mean annual temperatures are usually between 5° C and 15° C.
  • Winters are abnormally mild. This is because of the warming effect brought by warm North Atlantic Drift.
  • Sometimes, unusual cold spells are caused by the invasion of cold polar continental air (Polar Vortex) from the interiors.
PRECIPITATION
  • The British type of climate has adequate rainfall throughout the year with a tendency towards a slight winter maximum (due to frontal cyclones).
  • Western margins have the heaviest rainfall due to westerlies.
  • Relief can make great differences in the annual amount. This is particularly significant in New Zealand where the western margins are subjected to heavy orographic rainfall whereas the eastern Canterbury plains receive comparatively less rainfall due to rain-shadow effect.
THE SEASONS
  • As in other temperate regions there are four distinct seasons.
  • Winter is the season of cloudy skies, foggy and misty mornings, and many rainy days from the passing depressions.
  • Spring is the driest and the most refreshing season when people emerge from the depressing winter to see everything becoming green again.
  • This is followed by the long, sunny summer.
  • Next is the autumn with the roar of gusty winds; and the cycle repeats itself.
  • This type of climate with its four distinct seasons is something that is conspicuously absent in the tropics. [Rainforest == Only Rainy season, Tropical Monsoon == Summer, Winter and Rainy, Tropical Savanna == Summer (rains) and Winter]
NATURAL VEGETATION IN BRITISH TYPE CLIMATE
  • The natural vegetation of this climatic type is deciduous forest.
  • The trees shed their leaves in the cold season.
  • This is an adaptation for protecting themselves against the winter snow and frost.
  • Shedding begins in autumn, the ‘fall’ season.
  • Some of the common species include oak, elm, ash, birch, beech, and poplar.
  • In the wetter areas grow willows (Light weight cricket bats are made from willows. In India willows are found in Kashmir).
  • Higher up the mountains in the Scandinavian highlands, the Rockies, southern Andes and the Southern Alps of New Zealand, the deciduous trees are generally replaced by the conifers which can survive a higher altitude, a lower temperature and poorer soils.
ECONOMY IN BRITISH TYPE CLIMATE Lumbering is quite profitable
  • Unlike the equatorial forests, the deciduous trees occur in pure stands and have greater lumbering value.
  • The open nature of the forests with sparse undergrowth is useful in logging operations.
  • Easy penetration means much cost can be saved in the movement of the logs.
  • The deciduous hardwoods are excellent for both fuel and industrial purposes.
  • In Tasmania, the temperate eucalypts are also extensively felled for the lumbering industry.
  • Higher up the mountains, conifers (softwood) are felled and transported to paper and pulp industry. They are extensively used in cardboard making.
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