Disaster Management – 03
Organizations related to Disaster Management Framework at Global level
- In 1994 the World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction was held in Yokohama, Japan.
- The conference adopted the Yokohama strategy and declared the decade 1990-2000 as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR).
- United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) is the successor to the secretariat of IDNDR and was created in 1999 to implement UN Disaster Risk Reduction strategy.
- The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) is a 10-year plan (2005-2015) to make the world safer from natural hazards. Priorities such as, Disaster risk reduction, identification, assessment through legal and policy frameworks, disaster preparedness and use of innovation was adopted.
- The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, is the successor instrument to the Hyogo Framework.
- It is a non-binding agreement, which the signatory nations, including India, will attempt to comply with on a voluntary basis.
- There are three international agreements within the context of the post- 2015 development agenda. These are:
- The Sendai Framework.
- Sustainable Development Goals 2015-2030
- The Paris agreement (COP 21) on Climate Change.
- These three agreements recognize the desired outcomes in Disaster Risk Reduction as a product of interconnected social and economic processes, which overlap across the agendas of the three agreements.
Organisations and Policies related to Disaster Management Framework at National level
National Disaster Management Authority of India (NDMA)
- It was established in 2005, under the Disaster Management Act 2005.
- The objective of NDMA is, to build a safer and disaster resilient India by a holistic, proactive, technology driven and sustainable development strategy.
- The NDMA is chaired by the Prime Minister of India and has a vice chairman with the status of Cabinet Minister and eight members with the status of Ministers of State.
- The NDMA Secretariat is headed by a Secretary and deals with mitigation, preparedness, plans, reconstruction, community awareness and financial and administrative aspects.
National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP)
- It was released in 2016, it is the first ever national plan prepared in the country for disaster management.
- With National Disaster Management Plan (2016) India has aligned its National plan with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, to which India is a signatory.
- The objective of the plan is to make India disaster resilient, achieve substantial disaster risk reduction. It aims to significantly decrease the losses of life, livelihoods, and assets in terms of economic, physical, social, cultural, and environmental. To maximize the ability to cope with disasters at all levels of administration as well as among communities.
State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA)
- At State level, State Disaster Management Authorities are established under Disaster Management Act 2005.
- SDMA is chaired by the Chief Minister of the State and has not more than eight members who are appointed by the Chief Minister.
- The SDMA prepares the state disaster management plan and implements the National Disaster Management Plan.
District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA)
- Under Disaster Management Act 2005, every State government shall establish a DDMA for every district in the State.
- The DDM Authority shall consist of:
- Chairperson – the Collector or District Magistrate or Deputy Commissioner act as Chairperson of DDMA.
- Co-Chairperson – is the elected representative of the local authority. In the Tribal Areas, the Chief Executive Member of the district council of autonomous district is the co-chairperson.
- There are not more than seven other members in DDMA.
- The Disaster Management Committee governed under District Magistrate will formulate village level disaster management plans for concern villages.
- The DDMA makes District Disaster Management Plan and implements the state Disaster Management Plan.
*Planning Commission no longer exists.
- India is a signatory to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and is committed to achieve the priorities and objectives through systematic and institutional efforts.
- With multi-dimensional initiatives and expertise, India is taking a leading role in strengthening regional cooperation among South Asian countries for reducing disasters.
- India is one of the participating countries and works closely with the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). India has been working closely with many countries for the exchange of ideas and expertise in disaster management.
- National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) defines the roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders including Central Ministries/ Departments, State Governments, UT Administrations, District Authorities and local self Governments.
- Primary responsibility of disaster management rests with the States. The Central Government conducts regular mock drill, community training and awareness programme to prepare the civilian populations for disasters.
- National Disaster Management Services (NDMS) was conceived by NDMA during 2015-16 for setting up of Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Network connecting MHA, NDMA, NDRF etc. to provide the failsafe communication infrastructure and technical support for Emergency Operation Centre (EOC) operations across the country.