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Anything available in our environment that a society perceives to be useful for its economic and material wellbeing is called as resource. It could be both natural as well as cultural.

Natural materials become resources when humans value them. The uses and values of resources change from culture to culture and from time to time. Resources are spatially distributed varying in quantity and quality. Some resources are finite, while others can be replenished at varying rates. However, humans need to balance short-term rates of use against long-term availability to ensure a sustainable future.

Classification of resources

Resource Planning:

All resources are not available in a single place. There are regions which are rich in certain types of resources but are deficient in some other resources. So efficient resource planning is necessary to reduce the imbalance.


A homogeneous, naturally occurring substance which has a definite chemical composition is called a mineral. These minerals are extracted from ores which are concentrations of minerals in rock that are high enough to be economically extracted for use.

All ores are minerals while all minerals are not ores as some of them might have a large amount of unwanted substances such as sand, stones and earthly impurities.

A country’s economic development is depending on the minerals. There are several types of minerals, but according to their characteristics and commercial use.

Based on their physical and chemical properties mineral are useful in various methods.

Occurrence of minerals:

Minerals are always found in impure form, these impurities are called Gangue

Veins and lodes:

Magma under the surface of the earth holds important minerals. These magma fills up the cracks in rocks and get metamorphosed. Minerals generally occur in the cracks, crevices, faults and joints of the igneous and metamorphic rocks. Minerals in smaller occurrence are called a ‘Vein’ and a larger occurrence is called a ‘lode’. E.g. Copper and Gold , etc.


Minerals that occur in beds and layers are formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration. These are formed in sedimentary rocks and generally occur in horizontal layers. E.g. Coal, Potash, etc. limestone is formed from decomposition of marine animals and plants.

Minerals such as Gold, Silver and Platinum are found in alluvial deposits or placer deposits of the sands of valley floor and at the foot hills.

Polymetallic nodules:

Also known as manganese nodules. These are metals accretion found on ocean basins. These are rich in Mg, Fe, Cu, Cobalt, etc.


Metallic Minerals:

These contains one are more metals. In general they are good conductors of heat and electricity.

They further divided into

  • Ferrous
  • Nin – Ferrous
  • Precious Minerals.

Ferrous Minerals:

These are naturally occurring inorganic substance that contains Iron as an element in their composition.

Those have highly magnetic properties and amount about 3/4th of total value of production of metallic minerals. E.g.: Iron, Manganese.

Iron: India possesses over 20 percent of the world’s total reserves. The quality of Indian ore is very high.

Important iron ores are:-Hematite, magnetite and limonite.

Magnetite ore contains more than 70% percent of iron. It is the best quality iron ore. It is dark brown to blackish in colour, and is often referred as ‘black ores’.

Hametite contains up to 60 percent of the iron.  Next to magnetite in quanitity and richness is the hametite ore.  It is red in color and is often refered to as ‘red ore’. It is Useful in Industrial production. Limonite is the third type of ore which has iron content of 35-50 percent. It is yellow in colour. Since India has large reserves of haematite and magnetite ores, inferior quality ore like limonite is rarely exploited.

Distribution of iron ore:

 Australia is the largest producer of Iron worldwide. India sands at fourth in this list. India posseses over 20 percent of the world’s total reserves in iron.

In India Iron ore deposits are found practically in every state. However, 96% of the total reserves are in Orissa, Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh, Karnataka and Goa. These states also account for 96 percent to the total production of iron ore in the country. About 3 percent of the country’s total production comes from Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.

Orissa and Jharkhand together possess about 50 percent of India’s reserves of high-grade iron ore. 

The principal deposits are located in Sundargarh, Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar districts of Orissa and Singhbhum district of Jharkhand.

Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh contributed about 25 percent of country’s total iron ore reserves and about 20-25 percent of country’s production of iron ore. The reserves are located in Bailadila range, Raoghat area in Bastar district and Dhalli Rajhara range in Durg district

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