Chapters :

Minerals and Resources 03

Goa posseses inferior quality ore but its contribution to the country’s total production is impressive. Most of the mines are open cast and mechanized.  Almost the entire production of iron from Goa is exported from Marmagao Port to Japan.  In Karnataka, the most important deposits are found in the Sandur-Hospet area of Bellary district; Babaudan hills of Chikmagalur district and in Simoga and Chitradurga district. Iron ore deposits of Andhra Pradesh are scattered in the Anantpur, Khammam, Krishna, Kurnool, Cuddapah and Nellore districts. Some deposits are also located in the state of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.

India contributes about 7 to 8 percent of the total production world trade. Now deposits are being worked out specially for export purpose. For example, Bailadila and Rajhara mines of Chhatisgarh and Kiruburu mines in Orissa are being worked for this purpose. Japan, Romania, the former Czekoslovakia and Poland are important importing countries. Iron ore is exported from Haldia, Paradip, Marmagao, Mangalore and Visakhapatnam ports. (ii) Manganese Ore It is a ferro – alloy used to manufacture the special quality of steel. It is used as cleanses in manufacturing process when added with Iron. Manganese ore forms an important ingredient in the manufacture of iron and steel. It is also used in manufacture of dry batteries, in photography, leather and match industries. About 85 percent of total manganese consumption in India is used by metallurgical industries. Distribution of Manganese ore : South Africa is the top producer of Manganese ore worldwide. India ranks third in the production of manganese ore in the world, next only to Russia and South Africa. About one fourth of the total production of India exported.

The important areas of production are in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh,Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Over 78 percent of total reserves of manganese ore of India occur in a belt stretching from Nagpur and Bhandara districts of Maharashtra to Balaghat and Chindwara district of Madhya Pradesh. But these two states contribute only 12 and 14 percent of total production respectively. The remaining 22 percent of reserves are distributed in Orissa, Karnataka, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Goa and Andhra Pradesh. Orissa tops in the production  of  manganese accounting for 37% of the total production of the country. Its reserves are only 12 percent of total reserves of  India. The important mining districts are Sundargarh, Rayagada, Bolangir, Keonjhar, Jajpur, and Mayurbhanj. In Karnataka, the deposits are located in the districts of Shimoga, Chitrdurga, Tumkur and Bellary. Small deposits are reported in Bijapur, Chikmagalur and Dharwar districts. Karnataka is the second largest producer of manganese ore, accounting for 26 percent of country’s total productions. It accounts for 6.41 percent of country’s total reserves.

Andhra Pradesh is a significant producer of manganese ore, contributing about 8 percent of India’s total production, although her reserves are insignificant. Goa, Jharkhand and Gujarat also have some deposits of manganese ore.


Non Ferrous Minerals : These Minerals doesn’t contain Iron in appreciable quantity. They are desirable due to their properties like low weight, higher conductivity, non corrosiveness. India is very poor and deficient in all of these minerals. Eg. : Copper, Tin, Titanium, Zinc, Bainite etc., (i) Bauxite Bauxite is a clay like substance and a non-ferrous metallic mineral. It is the ore from which aluminium metal is produced. India’s reserves of bauxite are sufficient to keep the country self-reliant. Aluminium extracted from the ore is used in production of aeroplanes parts, electrical appliances and goods, household fittings, utensils etc. Bauxite is also used for manufacturing of white colour cement and certain chemicals. 71


Distribution of Bauxite Australia is the largest producer of Bauxite followed by China. India stands 5th at world level. India’s bauxite production in 2016 was around 22.08 million tonnes. Odisha is the top producer (60%) of  Bauxite in India. The main bauxite belt is in Kalahandi and koraput district and extends further into Andhra Pradesh. Also major reserves occur in Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Goa and Uttar Pradesh.   (ii) Copper: Being a soft metal coppers used extensively in metallurgical Industry, making utensils and coins. Being a good conductor of electricity and ductility it is extensively used in a vast variety of electrical machinery, wires and cables.  76% of the world’s copper extracted from pyrite ore. Copper is highly lustier and acts as good conductor which makes it desirable in electrical industries. Distribution of Copper: Chile leads in production of copper worldwide followed by Peru. India accounts for only 0.15% of the world’s production. Madhya Pradesh is the single largest copper producing state in India. Major copper ore deposits are located in Singhbhum district of Jharkhand, Balghat district of Madhya Pradesh and Jhunjhunu and Alwar districts of Rajasthan Non-metallic Minerals Non-metallic minerals are mineral that do not contains metals. A large number of non-metallic minerals are found in India but only a few of these are commercially important. They are limestone, dolomite, mica, gypsum and phosphate. These minerals are used in a variety of industries such as cement, fertilizers, refractories and electrical goods (i) Mica Mica has multi layered structures made up of thin sheets. It is light weight, flexible and strong. Also it can withstand high temperatures high voltages. Mica is known for its better insulating capacity. India is the leading producer in sheet mica. It was one of the indispensable minerals used in electrical and electronic industries till recently. However its synthetic substitute has reduced our exports as well as production considerably. Distributionof Mica India is the largest producer of mica in the world. It accounts for 60% of world’s total production. Mica mining in India was mainly done for export. The principal importing country was the U.S.A. which took about 50 percent of the imports. In India mica deposits occur in three principle belts. They are in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Bihar and Rajasthan. Bihar and Jharkhand produces the high-quality ruby mica. These state supplies more than 80% of the India’s output.  In Jharkhand Mica mines found in Giridhi and Kodarma districts of the state.  In Andhra Pradesh mica is found in a belt in Nellore district. Rajasthan is the third largest mica producing belt. Rajasthan’s Ajmer is major producing region of Mica. Other  zones, covers the districts of Jaipur, Udaipur, Bhilwara, and Kishangarh. But in these regions quality of mica is inferior
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