Chapters :

Minerals and Resources 04


It is formed in sedimentary rocks of most geological formations and it is essential for cement Industry and smelting Iron one. Limestone is used in a wide range of industries. 76 % of the country’s total consumption is used in cement industry, 16% in iron and steel industry and 4% in chemical industries. The remaining 4 % is used by sugar, paper, fertilisers and ferromanganese industries. Limestone with high silica content is preferred in cement industry. Distribution of limestone: Madhya Pradesh possesses 16 % of the total reserves. Other major producing states are Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. The remaining part comes from Assam, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, and Meghalaya. Karnataka contributes about 10 percent of the total reserves. 

Precious Minerals:

These are rare naturally occurring chemical elements (Metallic) of high economic value. Precious metals are less reactive. E.g.: Gold, Platinum, Diamond, etc. India is the top consumer of Gold. Energy Resources: Energy resources are all forms of fuels used in the modern world, either for heating, generation of electrical energy. Resources that provide energy in various forms are categorised as renewable energy resources and non – renewable energy resources. (i) Non – Renewable Energy: Once these resources are used they cannot be regained again. They are exhaustible. The time taken to renew them by nature is very huge when compared with human life span. Most commonly using firewood, Cattle dung cake are non – renewable Sources of energy. Coal: (Buried Sunshine) Coal is a fossil fuel. Around 60% of power generation in India is dependent on coal. It is also an important raw material for steel industry.  Coal is formed due to compression of plant material at intense pressure and heat inside the earth by the process of carbocation. The quality of a coal is determined by its calorific value, moisture concentration and ash content. Based on these factors coal classified into various types.

Types of Coal :

(i) Peat: Contains less than 30% of carbon. Low grade coal and is very soft. Mostly found in swamp area. (ii) Lignite or Brown Coal : Contains 35 – 45% Carbon. Hold high amount of moisture content. Lignite resources in Neyveli (Tamil Nadu) are used for electricity generation. (iii) Bituminous or coking coal: This contains 70 – 90%  of carbon. This is most widely used variety of coal in commercial purpose. It is found widely in Gondwana region. (iv)Anthracite: It is the best grade of coal. It contains 95% of carbon. It contains very low moisture. It is very hard but emits less smoke.  Distribution of Coal: World Scenario:  Huge reserves are found in USA (Appalachian region), Germany, Scottish region of England, Transvaal region of South Africa. China is the largest producers of steam Coal followed by India. Steam coal is high in sulphur content and used for producing steam. China is also the top producer of cooking coal followed by Australia. Indian Scenario: Coal Deposits are found in Domodhar valley, Raniganj, Bokaro. Also tertiary coal occurs in the north eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Nagaland and Arunachal. Even though India have sufficient deposits but due to inferior quality its coal requirements mostly dependent on imports. Important coal mines : Korba                                       –                                 Chattisgarh Bokaro, Tharia                        –                                 Jharkand  Raniganj                                   –                                 West Bengal Singarun                                   –                                 Andra Pradesh Songranli                                  –                                 Madya Pradesh. Rat hole mining: Rat hole mining is primitive and hazardous method of mining for coal, with tunnels that are only 3-4 feet in diameter (hence, rat-hole) leading to deep pits. It mostly prevalent in North East India. In 2014 National Green Tribunal banned rat hole mining as it is hazardous to workers involved in it.

Petroleum or Mineral Oil:

Petroleum is most widely used energy source after coal in India. it is also called as liquid gold sitting its importance in modern world. Our agriculture, industry and transport system depend on petroleum in several ways. It found under the surface of earth in solid, liquid and Vapour form.
  • Solid form – Asphalt
  • liquid form – crude oil
  • Vapour Form – Natural Gas.
Petroleum occurs in anticlines and fault traps. In India it is found in passes of sedimentary rocks. When these rocks are drilled Natural Gas comes out first followed by petroleum. Petrol, kerosene, diesel, detergents, synthetic fibres, plastics, cosmetics etc. are important products derived from petroleum. Petroleum Reserves of the World:

60% of World’s oil resources are in West Asia Or middle East. Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and Kuwait have largest reserves of petroleum. Latin American state Venezuela also have huge amount of petroleum reserves.

Iraq is the India’s highest supplier of Crude Oil. India’s Petroleum reserves: Most of petroleum reserve areas lie in the Assam, Gujarat and off shore areas along the western coast. The entire production of India till today comes from the Assam belt, Gujarat- Cambay belt and Bombay High(63% Production is from Mumbai High, 18% from Gujarat and 16% from Assam). The Assam belt consist of Dihang basin, Bhitra and Surma Valley. The Gujarat-Cambay belt extends from Mehsana (Gujarat) in the north to the continental shelf off

the coast right up to Ratnagiri (Maharashtra) in the south. It covers Bombay High which is the largest producer of petroleum in the country. In Assam, the oil producing area is located in the Lakhimpur and Sibsagar districts.

Oil Refineries in India

The crude petroleum taken from oil fields needs to be refined before it can be used. Oil refining is really a big chemical engineering industry involving a complicated process. Presently there are 17 oil refineries in India under public sector. These oil refineries are supplied crude oil either by ships or by pipelines. Although the annual production shows an increasing trend, the country has to import petroleum and petroleum products to meet its requirements.
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