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SOIL DEGRADATION & CONSERVATION  – 03

SOIL CONSERVATION MEASURES:

 It include Soil Conditioners (such as organic materials and lime), Wind Reduction Techniques (Wind Breaks, Shelter Belts), Cultivation Techniques (Terracing, Contour Ploughing, Strip Cultivation) and avoiding the use of marginal lands. Strategies for combating soil degradation is not so common or widespread and to reduce this risk farmers are encouraged and informed about the processes and conservation methods.  Farmers are in the need of beginning with extensive management practices like Organic Farming, Afforestation, Pasture Extension, And Benign (Gracious) Crop Production. However to make this work policies need to be put into place. Consider Conservation Measures:
  • Soil Conditioners (For Example, Use Of Lime And Organic Materials)
  • Wind Reduction Techniques (Wind Breaks, Shelter Belts, Strip Cultivation)
  • Cultivation Techniques (Terracing, Contour Plowing)
  • Efforts To Stop Plowing Of Marginal Lands
  • Trickle Drip Is A Slow Release Of Water From Pipes Under The Surfaces Which Can Reduce The Loss Of Evaporation
There are several methods farmers can use to reduce or prevent erosion. 
  • Mechanical methods are used to reduce water flow including Bunding, Terracing, And Contour Ploughing. The goal is to prevent and slow down the movement of rain water down the slopes.
  • Vegetation cover methods use roots of crops to help bind the soil and decrease the action of wind and rain on the soil surface. Increased organic on the soil surface allows the soil to hold more water and reduce the mass, movement and erosion and stabilizing the soil structure.
  • SOIL HUSBANDRY is used to prevent damage to the soil structure. Care is taken to reduce the use of heavy machinery especially on wet soils and ploughing on soils that are sensitive to erosion.
The three main ways of Managing Salt-Affected Soils is by:
  • Flushing The Soil with water and leaching the salt away
  • Using Gypsum And Calcium Sulfates to replace sodium ions on the clay and colloids
  • Reduction In Evaporation Losses to reduce the upward movement of water in the soil
Both Socio-Economic And Ecological Factors have been ignored and integrated approach to soil conservation is needed, non-technological factors like population pressure, social structures, economy and ecological factors can determine the appropriate technical solutions.
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