Chapters :
  • HISTORY OF MODERN INDIA – 03

  • THE TREATY OF SALBAI
  • MYSORE WARS
  • FIRST  ANGLO – MYSORE WAR

  • BATTLE OF CHINKURALI (1771)
  • TREATY OF MANGALORE
  • THIRD ANGLO-MYSORE WAR – (1790–1792)
  • THE TREATY OF SRIRANGAPATNAM
  • THE POLICY OF ‘SUBSIDIARY ALLIANCES’
  • BATTLE OF SRIRANGAPATAM

  • SECOND MARATHA WAR (1803-1805)

  • SECOND MARATHA WAR (1803-1805)
  • THE TREATY OF DEOGAON

  • TREATY OF SURJI
  • THIRD MARATHA WAR (1817 – 1819)

  • THE PINDARI WAR ( 1817- 1819)
  • THE ANGLO-NEPALESE WAR

                                      HISTORY OF MODERN INDIA – 03

THE TREATY OF PURANDHAR

The Calcutta Council in which the opponents of Warren Hastings were in the majority declared the Treaty Of Surat  as “Impolitic, Dangerous, Unauthorized And Unjust“.  They sent Colonel Upton to Poona to negotiate with the Maratha ministers who were headed by Nana Fadnavis. The Treaty of Purandhar was concluded on March 1, 1776. The English gave up the cause of Raghunatha Rao who was to receive a pension from Poona, but they were to retain Salsette.

The treaty was ineffective. The Bombay Government gave shelter to Raghunatha Rao. The Court of Directors upheld the Surat Treaty. The war began again. A British army of about 4,000 men marched to Poona. They were defeated at Talegaon and compelled to sign a convention at Wadgaon in January 1779, by which the British were to surrender all territories taken by the Bombay Government since 1773.

THE TREATY OF SALBAI

The Maratha chiefs now expressed their willingness to come to terms with the British. Mahadaji Sindia opened negotiations and a treaty was concluded on May 17, 1782. By this treaty known as the Treaty of Salbai, the English acquired Salsette but renounced the cause of Raghoba. Their ‘attempt to create a puppet in Maharashtra was thus toiled.

MYSORE WARS

In the  history of the growth of British power in India the First Maratha War was very closely connected with the Second Anglo-Mysore War. This can be explained only if we review the previous history of Anglo-Mysore relations.

HAIDAR ‘ALI, the ruler of Mysore, was known to be closely connected with French. He was also in strong opposition to the Marathas because he had taken advantage of their disaster at Panipat in 1761 to conquer Maratha territories south of the Tungabhadra. There was enmity between Haidar.

FIRST  ANGLO – MYSORE WAR

Ali and Muhammad” Ali of Arcot, who was even more dependent upon the British that the ruler of Avadh. Haidar ‘Ali and the Nizam (Nizam Ali) joined in an alliance against the British in 1767. The First Anglo-Mysore War lasted from August 1767 to April 1769. Haidar and the Nizam carried the war into the territory of the Nawab Of Arcot. There was a fierce engagement with the British at Changam and then a BATTLE AT TIRUVANNAMALAI , Haidar and Nizam ‘Ali suffered a defeat.

The Nizam withdrew and concluded a treaty with the Madras Government. Haidar now followed a plan of perpetual harassment rather than hazard a battle. He was very strong in cavalry. He succeeded in placing himself between the Brvitish army and Madras and before The British General Smith could reach Madras he had forced its Government to accept his terms-mutual restitution of conquests and a defensive alliance.

BATTLE OF CHINKURALI (1771).

Haidar attached great importance to this defensive alliance which he intended to utilize if the Marathas invaded his territory. The Marathas, because of Haidar’s encroachment  on what they regarded as their dependent territory, invaded Mysore and defeated him completely in the BATTLE OF CHINKURALI (1771). This however, did not mean a collapse of Haidar’s military power.

War began between The British & The French In 1778. In spite of Haidar ‘Ali’s protest a British expedition captured Mahe from where he drew his military supplies. There were frequent forntier disputes from Cuddapah to Dindigul. At this time the Poona Government, on the lookout for allies against the British, wanted to form an alliance with Haidar ‘Ali as also with the Nizam. They both agreed to join in a grand alliance. The Bhonsle Raja of Nagpur was to attack Bengal the Nizam the Northern Circars, and Haidar ‘Ali Madras. The Marathas had their own confrontation.
TREATY OF MANGALORE

Tipu Sultan carried on the war against the British and achieved success in Malabar. When news of peace between the French and the English reached India, Lord Macartney, Governor of Madras, concluded with Tipu the Treaty of Mangalore (March 1784) on the basis of mutual restitution of conquests and liberation of prisoners. Warren Hastings was very much opposed to these terms, but he head to accept them.

Tippu Sultan attacked Travancore on December 29, 1789. The Raja was an ally of the Company under the terms of the Treaty of Mangalore. Lord Cornwallis (1786-1793) ( Image ) declared that the attack was an act of war. As the Nizam and the Marathas were apprehensive of the growing power of Tipu Sultan, they allied themselves with the British.

THIRD ANGLO-MYSORE WAR – (1790–1792) 

The Third Anglo-Mysore War lasted two years from 1790-1792. Lord Cornwallis himself led the campaign when he found that Medows, the British commandant, had failed to make any headway. He captured Bangalore in March, 1791 but his first attempt to advance to Srirangapatnam failed. Tipu’s scorched earth policy created a famine in the British camp and Cornwallis had to raise the siege. As he fell back the Marathas joined him with sufficient supplies. The next campaign was more successful. Cornwallis reached the outskirts of Srirangapatnam and compelled Tipu Sultan to sue for peace.

THE TREATY OF SRIRANGAPATNAM

The Treaty of Srirangapatnam concluded on March 19, 1792, Tipu Sultan surrendered half of his territory. The British took Dindigul, the Baramahal, Coorg and Malabar, while the Nizam and the Marathas extended their territories upto Cuddapah and Tungabhadra respectively.

Sir John Shore (1793-1798) did not deviate from the policy of non intervention. Like Cornwallis he believed that if the Marathas were left alone they would quarrel among themselves and their power would disintegrate. 

THE POLICY OF ‘SUBSIDIARY ALLIANCES’

A series of conquests and annexations began under Lord Wellesley (1798-1805). He formulated the policy of ‘Subsidiary Alliances’ and proceeded to make the British power supreme in India. Shore had not intervened when the Marathas attacked the Nizam in 1795. The Nizam had been defeated by the Martha army at Kharda but Peswa Madhava Rao Narayana committed suicide which led to disorganization. In these circumstances it was easy for Wellesley to take action. 

Lord Wellesley wanted Tipu Sultan to wind up his friendship with the French. Actually Tippu’s negotiations with the French could not be dangerous at all to the British with their sea-power. Tipu was also in correspondence with Zaman Shah of Kabul, inducing him to ivade the Punjab. With the Marathas and the Nizam to support him in the field of battle, and with his own forces from Madras and Bombay converging, Wellesley declared war on Tipu in February, 1799.

BATTLE OF SRIRANGAPATAM

Seringapatam was taken in May 1799. Tipu Sultan died fighting. Wellesley restored the kingdom to the old Hindu Wodeyar dynasty after appropriating large tracts of it for distribution among the Marathas the Nizam and the Company. The new dependant state of Mysore which was now governed by a subsidiary treaty was surrounded on all sides by British territory.

SECOND MARATHA WAR (1803-1805)

The sequence of events that led to the war is very clear. The death of two shrewd Maratha statesmen Mahadaji Sindia in 1794 and Nana Fadnavis in 1800-left a void difficult to fill. There was fierce rivalry for power between Daulat Rao Sindia (successor of Mahadaji Sindia) and Jaswant Rao Holkar (who succeeded Tukoji Holkar in 1797). Both tried to secure ascendancy at Poona. In 1802,  Holkar succeeded in defeating the troops of the Peswa and Sindia almost within sight of Poona. 

Baji Rao II fled to Bassein and concluded a subsidiary alliance with the British on December 31, 1802. He was to receive a subsidiary force of not less than 6,000 and was to assign districts yielding twenty-six lakhs of rupees for its maintenance. 

THE TREATY OF DEOGAON

The Treaty of Deogaon was signed in the following month. Bhonsle ceded the province of Cuttack along with certain other territories and agreed to receive a subsidiary force. Scindia’s French trained army was defeated by Lord Lake at Aligarh and at Delhi and finally at Laswari.

TREATY OF SURJI

The Treaty of Surji Arjungaon ceding to the British the Ganga Yamuna Doab territories as also Ahmadnagar and Broach and giving up all his claims on the Mughal Emperor, the Peswa, the Nizam and Gaikwar. By another treaty concluded in 1804, Sindia agreed to have a subsidiary alliance under the Company’s overlordship.

THIRD MARATHA WAR (1817 – 1819)

Lord Hastings succeeded Minto in 1813 and continued until 1823. The Peswa was restless under the British yoke. He was compelled to sigh a new treaty in June 1817, by which he had to give up the headship of the Maratha Confederacy and he was to conduct relations with other states through the British Resident. He had also to cede the Konkan and his rights in Malwa, Bundelkhand and in Northern India. 

THE PINDARI WAR ( 1817- 1819)

The Pindari War of Hastings was consequently merged in the Third Anglo-Maratha War. Daulat Rao Sindia was induced to conclude a new treaty with the British in 1817. He gave the British the right of entering into treaty relations with the Rajput sates on the left bank of the Chambal. The Peswa burnt down the British Residency. The British detachment was reinforced and Poona was occupied. Appa Sahib of Nagpur organized resistance, but his troops were defeated at Sitabaldi Hills and Nagpur.

THE ANGLO-NEPALESE WAR

The Anglo-Nepalese War, which was caused largely by frontier incident, lasted from 1814 to 1816. Ochterlony’s victory at Makwanpur in February 1816, led to the conclusion of the Treaty Of Sagauli. The Nepal ruler gave up his claims to Sikkim, ceded the disputed Tarai tracts, and received a Resident at Katmandu. Thus the northern frontier was given  settled limits.

Internal wars were over. British sovereignty was now established in India. Only the Punjab remained open.

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