Chapters :



The principle of Collective Responsibility basically means three things:
  1. COLLECTIVE DECISION MAKING: The decisions taken by the Cabinet must be accepted and defended by all the ministers in the council. They must defend the government policies both inside and outside the Parliament.
  2. Removal or Resignation from the Council / Individual Responsibility: If a minister does not agree with the decisions of the cabinet, the Prime Minister may ask him to resign from the council or may advice the President to dismiss him from the office.
  3. COLLAPSE OF THE GOVERNMENT: When a motion of no-confidence is passed against the government or even against a single minister, the entire council, including the ones from the RajyaSabha must resign from office. This leads to the collapse of the government.
THE PARLIAMENT The institution of Parliament is inevitable for the functioning of any democratic system of government. In India, the Parliament is the highest law-making body of the Union composed of the President, the RajyaSabha or the Council of States and the LokSabha or the House of People. The composition, organisation, functioning, privileges and so on of the two houses of Parliament are dealt with in articles 79 to 122 under Part V of the constitution.   RajyaSabha and LokSabha
S. No   RajyaSabha (RS) LokSabha (LS)
1 Other Names Upper House or Council of States or Second Chamber. Lower House or House of People or First Chamber.
2 Purpose To represent the states and the union territories(UTs). To represent the people of states and union territories.
3 Composition Maximum Strength Allowed: 250 From States and UTs: 238 Nominated by President: 12 Actual Strength: 245 From States: 229 From UTs: 4 Nominated by President: 12 Maximum Strength Allowed: 552 From States: 530 From UTs: 20 Nominated by President: 2 Actual Strength: 545 From States: 530 From UTs: 13 Nominated by President: 2
4 Election 1) The members of RS are elected by the elected members of state legislative assemblies. 2) The allocation of seats in RS to the states is based on the population of states. 3) The system of Proportional Representation by means of Single transferable Vote is followed. 4) The RS members representing the UTs are indirectly elected by a special electorate constituted for this purpose. Only two UTs, Delhi and Puducherry have representatives in RS. 5) The nominated members are persons with special knowledge or practical experience in the field of art, science, literature and social service. 1) The members of LS are elected directly by the people of respective territorial constituencies of the states and UTs. 2) The allocation of seats in LS to the states is based on the population of the states provided that uniforminity is maintained between different states and the different constituencies of each state. 3) The system of universal adult franchise is followed. 4) The LS members from UTs are also directly elected by the people. 5) The President can nominate 2 members to LS from Anglo-Indian community if in his opinion, the community is not adequately represented in the LS.
5 Reservation To SCs and STs Not available Seats are reserved to SCs and STs on the basis of their population ratio.
6 Duration The RS is a permanent body and cannot be dissolved. Every second year, 1/3rd of its members retire and elections are conducted to fill the vacancies. 1) The LS is not a permanent body and automatically gets dissolved with the completion of a term of five years. 2) The President can dissolve the LS even before the five year term and this cannot be challenged in any court. 3) The duration of LS can be extended by a law of Parliament for one year at a time(for any number of times) during National Emergency. 4) After the revocation of emergency, the election to LS has to be conducted within six months time.
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