Chapters :
  • THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS – 14
  • Article 42
  • Article 43
  • Gandhian Principles

THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS – 14

 Article 42: It says that the State shall strive to secure just and humane conditions of work to workers and acquire maternity benefits to women. To realise this directive, the Parliament passed the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961(Amended in 2017), Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946, Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1970 and so on. Article 43: It directs the State to secure to all the workers, agricultural, industrial or otherwise by suitable legislations or economic organisation, the following
  • A work
  • A living wage
  • Conditions of work that ensures decent standard of living
  • Full enjoyment of leisure
  • Full enjoyment of social and cultural opportunities.
The legislations such as the Minimum Wages Act (1948), the Factories Act (1948), the Mines Act (1952), etc have been enacted to put this provision into effect. Note: The second part of this provision talks about promotion of cottage industries, which is covered under the Gandhian principles section. Article 43A: It directs the State to enable the participation of workers in the management of companies and organisations involved in any industry. This article was added by the 42nd constitutional amendment act, 1976. Article 47: It says that the State shall strive to improve the nutrition level and the standard of living of the citizens to improve the overall health of the public as its primary duty. The National Health Policy 2017, RashtriyaSwasthyaBimaYojana, Family Welfare Schemes and so on are formulated and implemented in this respect. Note: The second part of this article talks about the prohibition of intoxicating drinks and drugs, which is covered under the Gandhian principles section. Gandhian Principles Article 40: It says that the State shall organise village panchayats and equip them with necessary powers and authority so that they can function as units of self-government. In this regard, the 73rd constitutional amendment act was enacted in 1992 that provides constitutional status to village panchayats under article 243 of Part IX. The powers and functions of village panchayats are enumerated in the eleventh schedule of the constitution. Article 43: It directs the State to promote cottage industries in rural areas either on an individual basis or on cooperative basis. The following are some of the institutions that were instituted in this regard
  1. Khadi and Village Industries Board
  2. Khadi and Village Industries Commission
  3. Handicrafts Board
  4. Handloom Board
  5. Coir Board.
Article 43B: It directs the State to promote voluntary formation, autonomous functioning, democratic control and professional management of cooperative societies. This article was added by the 97th constitutional amendment act, 2011 that provides constitutional status to cooperative societies. The amendment act made three changes to the constitution. They are
  1. The right to form cooperative societies was made a fundamental right under article 19(1)(c), which guarantees freedom to form associations or unions or cooperative societies.
  2. A new directive principle under article 43B was inserted in Part IV.
  3. A new part, Part IXB was inserted, which deals with the formation, administration and other aspects of cooperative societies.
Article 46: It says that the State shall strive to promote the educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections and also to protect them from exploitation and social injustice. The following measures were in this regard.
  1. Provisions for reservations to SCs, STs and other weaker sections were made for their admission to higher educational institutions, government employment and representative bodies.
  2. Two constitutional bodies namely the National Commission for SCs and the National Commission for STs were instituted for safeguarding their rights.
  3. Special laws were enacted to protect the civil rights of SCs and STs, such as the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989,
The Untouchability Act, 1955, etc. Article 47: It directs the State to bring about complete prohibition of the consumption of intoxicating drinks and drugs that are injurious to health. Article 48: It directs the State to take steps for prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other milch and draught animals and also to improve their breeds.
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