Chapters :
  • THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS – ABOLITION OF TITLES – 01

  • ARTICLE 18: ABOLITION OF TITLES

  • RIGHT TO FREEDOM

  • ARTICLE 19:  PROTECTION OF SIX RIGHTS

  • ARTICLE 19 (1) (A): FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND EXPRESSION

THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS – ABOLITION OF TITLES – 01

ARTICLE 18: ABOLITION OF TITLES This article establishes the ‘Equality of Status’ among the citizens. Provisions of this article are
  1. The State shall not confer any title to its citizens except military and academic titles.
  2. No citizen shall accept Any Title from any foreign State.
  3. A foreign national who is holding An Office Of Profit Or Trust under the State shall not accept any title from any foreign State without the permission of the President of India.
  4. No person who is holding an office of profit or trust under the State shall accept any kind of presents, emoluments or offices from or under any foreign State.
Note: The awards such as Bharat Ratna, Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri do not amount to ‘titles’ under article 18. But, these awards cannot be added as suffix or prefix to the name of the awardees.
RIGHT TO FREEDOM INTRODUCTION : The constitution of India has enshrined ‘liberty’ to all citizens of India as one of its objectives in the Preamble. To put it, liberty is the state of being free to do what one wants. Freedom is the state of being free from something. Thus, freedom is the means to achieve liberty. Hence, the constitution has incorporated various provisions to protect the freedom of citizens with reasonable restrictions in the view of achieving the goal of liberty.
Right to Freedom
Article 19 Protection of six rights
Article 20 Protection in respect of conviction for offences
Article 21 Protection of life and personal liberty
Article 21A Right to education
Article 22 Protection against arrest and detention
ARTICLE 19:  PROTECTION OF SIX RIGHTS Article 19 is the reservoir of civil rights that are imperative for the development of any person into a unique human being. Clause 1: It consists of six subclauses guaranteeing six fundamental freedoms to all the citizens.
Sub Clause Freedom Ensured
a Freedom of speech and expression
b Freedom to assemble peacefully without arms
c Freedom to form associations and unions
d Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India
e Freedom to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India
f Omitted (Freedom to acquire, hold and dispose property)
g Freedom to practice any profession, carry on any occupation; trade and business
  ARTICLE 19 (1) (A): FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND EXPRESSION Among all the freedoms, the freedom of speech and expression is inevitable to attain liberty. It is the prerequisite for all other freedoms to thrive in a society. It includes
  1. The freedom to freely express any opinion through any medium such as the Words Of Mouth, Writing, Printing, Audio-Visual, Movie, Film, Pictures, Electronic Platforms, etc;
  2. The freedom of communication; publication and propagation of opinions to all the people within the territory of India and abroad;
  3. The right to acquire information and disseminate the same.
Note: Right To Information(RTI) has been specified as a fundamental right under Article 19(1)(A). Unless the citizens are informed about the functioning of the public institutions, their Right To Free Speech And Expression of their opinions will have no purpose. In this regard, the RTI Act of 2005 was enacted by the Parliament, that ensures timely disposition of information to the citizens on request.
The above six freedoms that are explicitly given in the article contain numerous other implied freedoms within. One such implied freedom is the Freedom of Press. As there are no specific provisions in the constitution that talk about the freedom of press, the press in India draws its freedom from Article 19(1)(A) like the citizens. Hence, both the press and the citizens enjoy the same set of freedoms.
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