Chapters :







Clause 5: It says that when a person is detained under preventive detention, he should be informed about the grounds of detention. He should also be facilitated the earliest opportunity to represent against such an order. Clause 6: It says that nothing in the Clause(5) requires the authority to disclose the ground of detention if, in its opinion, the disclosure will affect the public order. Clause 7: It gives the Parliament two powers in the case of preventive detention
  1. The Parliament, can by law, describe the circumstances or the classes of cases, under which the detention beyond the duration of 3 months does not require the opinion of the advisory board.
  2. The Parliament can also prescribe the maximum period of detention that is allowed.
Right against arrest is available only to citizens whereas Right against preventive detention is available to both citizens and foreigners.
RIGHT AGAINST EXPLOITATION A society can never become civilised if it allows the exploitation of the weaker men by the stronger men. To truly enjoy personal liberty, a man must be free from all kinds of exploitation.
Article 23 Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
Article 24 Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.
Article 23: Prohibition of Traffic In Human Beings And Forced Labour Clause 1: It prohibits the practices of Human Trafficking, Begar and all other forms of forced labour and makes the indulgence in these practices an offence punishable by law. This protection is available to both citizens and foreigners. HUMAN TRAFFICKING: It includes the following
  1. Buying and selling of men, women and children like goods.
  2. Immoral trafficking of children and women for prostitution.
  3. The practice of Devadasi system.
  4. The practice of slavery.
Begar: It is an integral part of the Jajmanisystem(An economic system based on the caste system), wherein people from the lower castes would work for people from the upper castes for free. It is a form of forced labour. The term ‘Forced’ Labour means making a person work against his will. Bonded labour is a form of forced labour. Making a person work for a wage lesser than the minimum wage also amounts to forced labour. Clause 2: It says that nothing in the Clause(1) shall prevent the State from imposing compulsory services of the citizens for the public good. But while imposing compulsory services the State should not discriminate the people on grounds only of religion, race, caste, class or any of them.
The protection under article 23 is available against both the State and private individuals.
Article 24: Prohibition of EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN IN FACTORIES, etc. This article prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in factories, mines and other forms of hazardous industries. It does not prohibit their employment in non-hazardous industries. CHILD LABOUR(PROHIBITION AND REGULATION) ACT, 2016 Features of the act:
  1. It has banned all types of child labour in all kinds of enterprises, whether hazardous or non-hazardous in nature.
  2. It has allowed the employment of children in the enterprises run by family members after the school hours or during vacation.
  3. It has added a new category called ‘adolescent’ that comprises children of 14-18 years of age and are allowed to work in non-hazardous enterprises.
  4. It has brought down the number of hazardous industries from 83 to 3.
  5. It has made child labour a cognizable offence.
RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF RELIGION India has always been a land of religious tolerance and coexistence. Secularism is a basic feature of the constitution and has been cherished since time unknown.
Article 25 Freedom of Conscience And Free Profession, Practice and propagation of religion
Article 26 Freedom to Manage Religious Affairs
Article 27 Freedom from Taxation For Promotion Of Religions
Article 28 Freedom from attending religious instructions
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