Chapters :
  • NUCLEAR ENERGY BY COUNTRY
  • INDIA NUCLEAR PROGRAM
  • BIOLOGICAL WARFARE OF INDIA
  • CHEMICAL WARFARE OF INDIA
  • NUCLEAR-ARMED BALLISTIC MISSILES
  • SEA-BASED NUCLEAR-ARMED BALLISTIC MISSILES

Nuclear Technology – 03

NUCLEAR ENERGY BY COUNTRY

The following table lists down the countries and the number of nuclear power plants in them −
Country Number of reactors Generated electricity (GWh) domestic generation share in %
Slovakia 4 13733.35 54.10%
Slovenia 1 5431.27 35.20%
South Africa 2 15209.47 6.60%
Spain 7 56102.44 21.40%
Sweden 10 60647.4 40.00%
Switzerland 5 20303.12 34.40%
Taiwan 6 30461.09 13.70%
Ukraine 15 76077.79 52.30%
United Kingdom 15 65148.98 20.40%
United States 100 804872.94 19.70%
World total 452 2,476 TWh 10.9%

INDIA NUCLEAR PROGRAM

India’s first nuclear program started in 1967. On May 18, 1974, India conducted its first nuclear weapon test. The first fusion weapon test on May 13, 1998. India has signed and ratified two treaties, i.e., Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention. India has also taken the membership of the Missile Technology Control Regime and is also a subscribing state to The Hague Code of Conduct.

BIOLOGICAL WARFARE OF INDIA

Consider the following points relating to the Biological Warfare of India.
  • India is one of the ratifying members of the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and it also pledged to abide by its obligations.
  • India possesses the scientific and technological capability to create a biological weapon, but there is as such no plan to do so.
  • In one of the speeches, the former President Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam emphasized that “India will not make biological weapons, as is cruel to human beings”.

CHEMICAL WARFARE OF INDIA

Consider the following points relating to the chemical warfare of India −
  • India is capable enough to produce chemical weapons, but it chooses not to do so.
  • India has signed and ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), stating that it does not intend to manufacture chemical weapons.
  • In 1997, India had stock of chemical weapons, i.e., about 1045 tonnes of Sulphur mustard, but by the end of 2006, India has destroyed more than 70 percent of its stocked chemical materials and also promised to destroy the remaining.

NUCLEAR-ARMED BALLISTIC MISSILES

The following table lists down the major nuclear-armed ballistic missiles of India −
Name Type Maximum range (km) Status
Prithvi-I Short-range 150 Deployed
Prithvi-II Short-range 250 – 350
Prithvi-III Short-range 350 – 600
Agni-I Short to medium-range 700 – 1,250
Agni-II Medium-range 2,000 – 3,000
Agni-III Intermediate-range 3,500 – 5,000
Agni-IV Intermediate-range 4,000 Tested successfully
Agni-V Intermediate to Intercontinental-range 5,000 – 8,000
Agni-VI Submarine-launched with intercontinental-range (probable MIRV) 6,000 Under development
Agni-VI Intercontinental-range (probable MIRV) 8,000 – 12,000 Under development
Surya Submarine launched Intercontinentalrange MIRV 10,000 Yet to confirm
Surya Intercontinental-range Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) 12,000 – 16,000

SEA-BASED NUCLEAR-ARMED BALLISTIC MISSILES

The following table lists down the major sea-based nuclear-armed ballistic missiles of India −
Name Type Maximum range (km) Status
Dhanush Short-range 350 Inducted
Sagarika (K-15) SLBM 700 Awaiting deployment on INS Arihant
K-4 SLBM 3,500 Tested
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