Chapters :
  • Human Body – 02

Human Body – 02


The circulatory system is also referred to as the cardiovascular system. It comprises the heart and all the blood vessels: Arteries, Capillaries, And Veins. There are essentially two components of circulation, namely:  Systemic circulation   Pulmonary circulation  circulation Diagram showing Pulmonary (Blue) And Systemic Circulation (Red) Besides these two, there is a third type of circulation called Coronary circulation. Because blood is the body’s connective tissue, it helps to transport essential nutrients and minerals to the cells and waste byproducts away from it. Hence, it is also known as the Body’s “Transport System.” Anatomically, the human heart is similar to other vertebrate hearts in the animal kingdom and hence, is a homologous organ. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM A diagram of the human digestive system detailing various components: The digestive system breaks down food and assimilates nutrients into the body, which the body then uses for growth and cell repair. The major components of the digestive system are:
  • Mouth
  • Teeth
  • Tongue
  • Oesophagus
  • Stomach
  • Liver
  • Pancreas
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Small and large intestines
  • Rectum 
The process of digestion starts with mastication (chewing food). Then, the saliva mixes with food and forms a bolus, a small rounded mass that can be easily swallowed. Once swallowed, the food travels down the Oesophagus and into the stomach. The stomach secretes strong acids and powerful enzymes that break the food down into a paste. It then moves into the small intestine where the food is broken down even more because of The Bile Secreted by The Liver and Powerful, Digestive Enzymes from The Pancreas. This is the stage at which nutrients are absorbed from the food. The leftover materials (stool) then move on to The Large Intestine where it transforms from liquid to solid, as water is removed. Finally, it gets pushed into the rectum, ready to be eliminated from the body. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM   The human reproductive system is also known as the genital system that comprises internal and external organs that help in reproduction. It varies for both males and females. Hormones, fluids, and pheromones are all connective accessories for the reproductive organs to function. Female Reproductive System The female reproductive system consists of the following:
  • Ovaries: Produces ovum – female egg as well as the hormone estrogen.
  • Uterine tubes: Oviducts or fallopian tubes are the other names given for uterus tubes.
Also known as the Womb, the uterus is a pear-shaped organ where the fetus grows. The cervix is the route to the vagina and gateway for sperm to enter. Vagina acts as the route for a penis to enter during intercourse and the exit of the fetus during delivery.


The male reproductive system consists of testicles, which act as a storehouse for sperms. These oval-shaped organs are encased in a pouch that is called scrotum.   Next to the testis is the vas deferens that are the accessory ducts for the male sexual system.  When sperm is formed, it is mixed with fluids that are produced by seminal glands, prostate gland, and Cowper’s gland. The primary purpose of Cowper gland is to hike the semen volume and lubrication during coitus.
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