Chapters :
  • Human Body – 03

  • NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • Peripheral Nervous System consists of
  • WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY HUMAN ANATOMY?

  • WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND BY HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY?

  • WHO IS THE FATHER OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY?

  • WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF ANATOMY?

  • WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY?

  • WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF ANATOMY?
  • WHAT ARE THE IMPORTANT ORGANS OF THE HUMAN BODY?

  • HOW IS HUMAN ANATOMY RELEVANT?

  • HOW ARE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY DIFFERENT FROM EACH OTHER?

Human Body – 03

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

The respiratory process involves the intake of oxygen, and the exhale of carbon dioxide from the body. This system is also known as the ventilatory system, gas exchange system or respiratory apparatus. Vertebrates like human beings possess lungs for respiration. The process of respiration starts with the cycle of inhalation and exhalation. Inhalation results in the oxygen entering into the body and exhalation results in carbon dioxide exiting from the body. Anatomically, the respiratory system comprises the following organs: Trachea Bronchi Bronchioles Lungs Diaphragm By diffusion, molecules of carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged passively among the blood cells and external environment. This swap is done through alveoli (which are the air sacs) in the lungs.

NERVOUS SYSTEM

The voluntary and involuntary actions are maintained and taken care of by the central nervous system. It helps to channel the signals to and from different parts of our body. Nervous System is broadly classified into two categories: Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Distribution of Nerves in humans (top) and the Neuron (bottom) The central nervous system contains the brain and the spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system includes nerves and ganglia that are present outside the brain and spinal cord. Through the axons, every part of the body gets connected. Central Nervous System consists of: FOREBRAIN: It comprises the Cerebrum, Hypothalamus, And Thalamus. The largest part of the brain is the cerebrum. Thinking, Perceiving, controlling motor function, receiving and processing information and understanding language are the main functions done by this section of the brain. Also, sexual development and emotion functions are attached to the fore brain.

MIDBRAIN:

It is situated between The Hypothalamus and Thalamus. The brain stem is associated with the midbrain. Auditory and Visual responses are controlled by the mid-brain.

HINDBRAIN:

The Medulla, Pons, And Cerebellum are together, tied in the hindbrain. Interconnections of different parts of the brain’s surface that helps to accommodate neurons and connect them to the spinal column are done by the Hind brain. Peripheral Nervous System consists of: SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: The system’s primary purpose is to transmit the motor and sensory impulses from CNS and back. It is linked to all the sensory organs, limbs and skeletal system. Imagine a scenario where you are riding a bicycle, and suddenly, you spot an obstacle (say a dog) on the road. Your ability to immediately swerve out of the obstacle’s path and avoid the crash is the result of the somatic nervous system taking action.

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM:

This system works without the person’s effort. The system helps to relay impulse from the central nervous system to smooth muscles and involuntary organs such as your heart, lungs etc. Also, it prepares the body against any violent attacks or abnormal conditions such as high body temperature during a fever or high rate of breathing and blood pressure after a strenuous exercise. Every human being, tissues, human body parts and the organ systems are made up of cells- the fundamental unit of life. ANATOMY is the science of understanding the structure and the parts of living organisms. Physiology, on the other hand, deals with the internal mechanisms and the processes that work towards sustaining life. These can include biochemical and physical interactions between various factors and components in our body. With the progress of evolution, organisms began to exhibit advanced characteristics and features that enabled them to be more efficient and thrive in their respective environment.

The human structure can be described as bipedal, with hair covering the body, presence of mammary glands and a set of extremely well-developed sense organs. With respect to human body anatomy, we have a specialized circulatory system that enables the efficient transport of materials and nutrients within the body. The presence of a well-developed digestive system helps to extract essential nutrients and minerals required by the body. A well-developed respiratory system ensures the efficient Gas Exchange, and The Nervous System enables coordination and interaction within the body and also the external environment, thereby ensuring survival.

WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY HUMAN ANATOMY? Anatomy is the study of the structure of an object. Human anatomy deals with the way the parts of humans interact to form a functional unit. Let’s Recap the Summary of Human Body … WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND BY HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY? Human Physiology deals with the mechanical, biochemical and physical functions of humans. It serves as the foundation of modern medicine. It is the study of the functioning of human organs.

WHO IS THE FATHER OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY? Claude Bernard is the father of human Physiology. He is also referred to as the father of modern experimental Physiology. WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY? Human physiology lays the foundation upon which our knowledge of life is built. It helps us to know how to treat diseases and how to manage stress laid upon us by different environments.

WHO IS THE FATHER OF HUMAN ANATOMY? Andreas Vesalius is known as the Father of Human Anatomy. He was Belgian born in the family of physicians. His most famous work, Fabrica of Andreas Vesalius won great recognition. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF ANATOMY? There are two different types of anatomy- gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy deals with things that can be seen with the naked eyes, whereas microscopic anatomy deals with the things that can only be viewed under a microscope. HOW IS HUMAN ANATOMY RELEVANT? Human anatomy helps us to understand the structure and relationship of all parts of the body. It also helps us to know the characteristics of different body parts. HOW ARE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY DIFFERENT FROM EACH OTHER? Anatomy helps us to know about the structure of the different body parts while physiology studies the functions and relationships of body parts.

WHAT ARE THE IMPORTANT ORGANS OF THE HUMAN BODY? The important organs of the body include- brain, lungs, heart, kidney, liver, stomach, intestines, bladder. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF OUR BODY? The different systems of our body include- cardiovascular system, endocrine system, digestive system, respiratory system, excretory system, lymphatic system, nervous system, muscular system, and skeletal system
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